Demographic indicators are so fabulous. It explains many interesting facts through various and useful information. It helps people and stakeholders to produce comprehensive analysis and policy.

Ideally, the study of demographics should be conducted routinely to produce the demographic characteristics and indicators needed.

Understanding the potential of demographic is basic for developing human capital. Enhancing the world means enhancing the population into their best shape.

Demographic indicators help us to discover what is beyond the demographic data.

It is very important to consider these indicators before designing your demographic questionnaire.

Unless conducting the demographic survey, a great analysis should be provided to present the best outcome. Several important indicators should be maintained due to keeping the world and the race stabilized.

To produce these demographic indicators, you may use these demographic questions and add your needs. Improvize it so you can make easy and understandable questions.

Contents

- What are the demographic indicators?
- Examples of demographic indicators
- Sex ratio
- Crude birth rate (CBR)
- General Fertility Rate (GFR)
- Age-specific fertility rate
- Total fertility rate (TFR)
- Crude Death Rate (CDR)
- Infant Mortality Rates
- Neo-Natal Mortality Rate
- Post neonatal mortality rate
- Children Mortality Rate
- Under-five Years Old Children Mortality Rate
- Life Expectancy
- Mobility Rate
- Incoming migration rate
- Outgoing migration rate
- Net Migration Rate
- You have to read this!

## What are the demographic indicators?

Demographic indicators are tools that can be used to identify and describe the population condition. It explains so many insight that valuable for our life.

Demographic indicators are very important because the government, stakeholder, and even a businessman should consider population as a main part of their strategy.

Especially, for the government, the demographic opportunity will rise when they understand how these indicators work.

These indicators also help us to calculate so many insight and useful information for the human being.

If you want to use this formula for your demographic calculation, perhaps you can use UN data to as the basic.

## Examples of demographic indicators

There are unlimited demographic indicators in the world. Demographer can produce their own indicators in order to fulfill their data needs.

The world keeps running. As a researcher, we have to keep both eyes open and works harder to identify which the important indicator.

### Sex ratio

The basic demographic indicator is the sex ratio. I believe you have heard this somewhere.

The sex ratio is the number of men divided by women and multiplied by a constant of 100.

We can use this indicator to see the gender composition in a state. By knowing this, government and researcher can identify the best policy they can make.

For example, if a country has more women than men, the government should put special policy for this. They should have more police and army to secure the place, prepare better public transportation so women have no worry to walk around or pay attention to the street lights to make women feel safer.

### Crude birth rate (CBR)

The crude birth rate is a figure showing the number of births in a given year per 1000 people in the middle of the same year. The formula is:

CBR = crude birth rate

B = number of births in a specific year

P = number of population in the middle of the year

P = number of population in the middle of the year

K = constant number, usually people use 1000.

By using this measurement, we can figure out how the fertility rate in the gross term. Why? Because it does not identify women and men.

### General Fertility Rate (GFR)

General Fertility Rate (GFR) is a number of birth every 1.000 women in the 15-49 group or 15-44 group. You can make your specific group for your purpose but this is the general condition.

Sometimes, it is called fertility rate.

The formula is:

GFR = general fertility rate

B = number of births in a specific year

P15-49 = population numbers of 15-49 years old

P15-44 = population numbers of 15-44 years old

K = constant number, usually people use 1000.

This formula is more detail and specific than CBR because it is only using women which 15-44 or 15-49 years old as the population.

The disadvantage is it can’t differentiate the birth risk among 40 years old woman with 25 years old women. They both have an equal profile, in assumption.

### Age-specific fertility rate

If you already understand the general fertility rate, you will understand the age-specific fertility rate easily. This is the same case with a modified formula.

The age-specific fertility rate is a demographic indicator which calculates the fertility in a specific age or groupage. It helps us to understand the birth profile and risk of each woman is different by their age. It counts the number of birth by 1000 women in a specific age.

ASFRi = Age-specific fertility rate in age group-i

Bi = number of births for women in age group-i

Pfi = number of women in age group-i

K = constant number, usually people use 1000.

### Total fertility rate (TFR)

If we want to compare the fertility among women in different countries, you have to use the total fertility rate. This measurement is one of the most important indicators of fertility used by demographers.

Total fertility rate measures the average number of children that would be born to a hypothetical cohort of women who survive to the end of their reproductive period and who bear children at each age at the rate.

There are two general assumptions of using Total Fertility Rate:

1. There are no death women before the end of the reproduction period

2. Fertility rate by age is constant in a certain period

TFR is the sum of ASFR. If the age group have five years interval, assuming the single-age fertility rates are the same as those of certain age groups, we can conclude that:

This formula is more excellent than GFR because it is the summarize of each group fertility rate. It considers the birth profile risk of each group into the formula so the result becomes excellent.

But, in order providing TFR, not every country has the data. This is a super-specific data that government have to prepare, especially in a developing country.

### Crude Death Rate (CDR)

Crude Death Rate is an indicator that describes the deaths that occur in a certain year for every 1000 people. It is a basic indicator that helps demographer to count the mortality condition.

We call it crude because it does not count the age of population. It only uses the total as the calculation. If we consider age as a vital part, we will understand that the elder has a higher death risk than the youth.

Even though it doesn’t consider age, it is always used to explain the state of welfare of the population.

It is also used as the basis of population projection and growth formula.

The formula is:

Where:

CDR = Crude Death Rate

D = death total in a certain year

P = total population in the middle of the year

K = constant value, usually 1000

### Infant Mortality Rates

The infant mortality rate is another interesting part of mortality. The world always recognizes this as a vital indicator that should be maintained simultaneously.

The infant mortality rate is the total of deaths infants in a given year divided by the total births in that same year.

The formula is:

Where:

IMR = Infant Mortality Rate

D = deaths to infants (toddler under one year of age) in a certain year

`$latex`

\Sigma $ Born Alive = number of live births for a certain year

K = constant value, usually 1000

The infant is vulnerable. They need full attention and concern both from parents and the government to ensure they get better treatment.

### Neo-Natal Mortality Rate

The neo-natal mortality rate is another mortality indicator. It shows the rate of death that occurs before the baby is one month old or 28 days per 1,000 live births in a given year.

The formula is:

D 0-< 1 month = Number of Deaths Infants aged 0 – less 1 month in a certain year

K = constant value, usually 1000

`$latex`

\Sigma $ Born Alive = number of live births for a certain year

### Post neonatal mortality rate

Post neonatal mortality rate is the numbers of death infant that occurs between one month old to less than one year.

This is another types of demographic analysis which summarize and evaluate the health indicator and the correlation to the infant.

D 1 month < 1 year

D 01 month< 1 year = Number of Deaths Infants aged 1 month – less 1 year in a certain year

K = constant value, usually 1000

`$latex`

\Sigma $ Born Alive = number of live births for a certain year

### Children Mortality Rate

The children mortality rate is one of the most priority indicators. It shows us how the environment affects the population, especially children.

In theory, children are the population aged 1-5 years, or precisely 1 to 4 years 11 months 29 days.

Remember, the approach used is the last birthday. So, as long as someone hasn’t had a birthday, his age hasn’t increased.

The formula is:

Where:

Children mortality rate = number of child deaths aged 1 year to less than 5 years

D 1-4 year = The number of deaths of children aged 1-4 years (who are not exactly 5 years old) in a certain year in certain areas

K = constant value, usually 1000

`$latex`

\Sigma $ P 1-4 year = total population aged 1-4 in the middle of the year

### Under-five Years Old Children Mortality Rate

Under-five years old children mortality rate is the number of deaths of all the children (including the newborn which aged 0 to five years old, 4 years, the eleventh month, and 29 days exactly).

Generally, it is written 0-4 years old.

Under-five years old children Mortality Rate is the number of deaths of children aged 0-4 years for a certain year per 1,000 children of the same age in the middle of that year (including infant deaths).

Where:

Under-five years old children mortality rate = The mortality rate for children aged 0 years to less than 5 years

D 0-4 year = The number of deaths of children aged 0-4 years (who are not exactly 5 years old) in a certain year in certain areas

K = constant value, usually 1000

`$latex`

\Sigma $ P 0-4 year = total population aged 0-4 in the middle of the year

### Life Expectancy

Life expectancy is the average life year that a newborn baby will live in a certain year. By using this indicator, we could evaluate and monitor the progress of health and economic progress.

Ideally, life expectancy is calculated by using the Age-Specific Death Rate (ASDR) which could be found by using the death registry by years and making de life table.

But, the technology and registration system is getting better so currently, we use the indirect method by using Mortpak Program,

### Mobility Rate

Mobility rate is the value of migrating population at a certain time and specific year.

The formula is:

m = mobility rate

M = total of migrating population

P = population total

k = constant value (1000)

### Incoming migration rate

The incoming migration rate is the value of migrant which entering a certain area in a year.

mi = incoming migration rate

I= total of incoming migration rate

P = population total

k = constant value (1000)

**Outgoing migration rate**

Outgoing migration rate is the value of migrant which leaving the certain area in a year.

mo = outgoing migration rate rate

O = total of outgoing migration rate

P = population total

k = constant value (1000)

### Net Migration Rate

The net migration rate is the net value of the incoming migrant rate and outgoing migrant rate in a certain area in a year.

mn = net migration rate rate

O = total of outgoing migration rate

P = population total

k = constant value (1000)

I= total of incoming migration rate

Summary

These demographic indicators are very useful for many purposes. It helps government, researcher, and the analyst to predict the world condition.

- Sex ratio
- Crude birth rate (CBR)
- General Fertility Rate (GFR)
- Age-specific fertility rate
- Total fertility rate (TFR)
- Crude Death Rate (CDR)
- Infant Mortality Rates
- Neo-Natal Mortality Rate
- Post neonatal mortality rate
- Children Mortality Rate
- Under-five Years Old Children Mortality Rate
- Life Expectancy
- Mobility Rate
- Incoming Migration Rate
- Outgoing Migration Rate
- Net Migration Rate

Where registration data is reliable, mortality, fertility, and migration indicator could be produced accurately in real-time. But, in developing countries, we still have to conduct a survey or census to supply all of these important indicators.