What is the meaning of research? There are still many of us who do not fully understand the meaning of research. This may be due to the low interest of people in the world of research.
Research is an inseparable part of almost the entire profession. Research affects many aspects of life, be it business, social, economic, cultural or even health.
Research is one way to find information or solutions to a phenomenon or problem that occurs in life.
For example, if you are a company manager. Of course, you must know important information that can develop the company such as the level of customer satisfaction, factors that affect product sales, things that affect employee productivity, etc.
To be able to find answers to these questions, you certainly need to do research, even though you are a manager, not a business.
Whoever you are, having a thinking frame as a researcher is very helpful in solving the various problems you face.
Research requires a capable ability from a person, starting from the formulation of background, problem formulation, literature review, data collection, data processing, to the presentation of research results. You have to know the complete methodology of research proposal.
With the existence of research, science can develop as we enjoy today.
What is the meaning of research?
Let’s discuss “what is the meaning of research”.
Look at the word separately. This research itself consists of 2 syllables, namely re, and search. Re means back, repetition. Search means searching, researching
When combined research is a learning or study activity that requires systematic and detailed investigation with the aim of finding facts or principles in science (Grinnell 1993: 4).
Grinnel also added that research is a structured study or study in-depth using scientific methodology to solve a problem and find new knowledge that can be applied in general.
Burns (1997: 2) says that research is a systematic process of study to find answers to a problem.
Kerlinger (1986: 10) argues that research is a systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical study of the initial assumptions of various phenomena that occur.
In general, research is the process of studying, studying, or deepening a phenomenon that occurs using structured, empirical, and accountable methods to find new solutions or information.
You need to remember, research and information gathering are two different things.
Collecting information is only a process of finding out the “what” question to describe a condition. Usually, descriptive statistics are commonly used to present information that is more interesting and easy to understand.
There are several data collection tools in order to support your purpose.
While research is a process that focuses more on “why” in which there are explanations, analyzes, comparisons, theories, etc. Various forms of inferential statistics are often used in research to prove various things.
As an example :
China’s population in 2019 is about1.386 billion people (information gathering).
Things that affect the slower growth in population in China (research).
You can see the difference, right? Information collection is only a small part of the research process.
Hoping you understand and never ask again about “what is the meaning of research”.
Purpose of research
In general, there are 3 research objectives:
1. Obtain new knowledge and information
2. Get answers to the phenomena that occur
3. Finding a solution to a problem
In its application, applied research or research is increasingly being used by various disciplines. Every profession uses research methodology in the various problems they face.
Research is useful for increasing understanding and competence of professionals who must continue to adapt to the progress of the times. The ability to manage research is an added value that can boost one’s career and business.
Do not believe? Just look at the profession or people who work in various institutions. You will find that many practitioners have excellent research abilities.
In general, the application of research can be divided into 4 points of view:
1. Provider of goods or services
If you are a businessman or service provider, then you need research to answer questions that can improve your business performance.
For example, how many people do you need to use the goods or services you offer? Why do people choose you among the many competitors? How big is the level of satisfaction from your customers? What problems often arise in the products or services that you offer?
A manager also needs to use research to find out the best strategies that can be used to improve company performance.
For example, what makes the employee feel at home at work? What is the appropriate amount of salary given to employees so that productivity increases?
3. Service users
As service users, we can also research to find out information such as whether the goods we buy are classified as value for money? How well does the service provider respond to complaints?
Professionals can also use research to find out many things following the fields that they pursue. Does a social expert certainly need to know what variables affect poverty? Is it true that technology will increase unemployment?
In addition to the four elements above, the government is also increasingly using research in every policymaking.
This can be seen from the principle of Evidence-Based Decision Making that has been encouraged by the government in recent years.
Evidence-based Decision Making means that every policy taken must be evidence-based in the field. This evidence can be in the form of research, surveys, polls, etc. that prove that the program is feasible.
By implementing this system, of course, the program will be more targeted and effective for people who need it.
In this case, research is also beneficial for the government in managing a more efficient budget. With research support, each program carried out will be more directed and following the needs of the community.
I should tell you that there are some people who still ask what is the meaning of research and what is the purpose, really.
Characteristics of research
After understanding what is the meaning of research, you also have to know the characteristics.
People consider that research is a very complex, complex and full of calculations. This is not right because research can also be a simple observation activity that produces new answers or information that is useful in everyday life.
The difference between research and not research lies in certain criteria and characteristics present in the problem.
Research characteristics and criteria are:
Many factors influence the occurrence of an event. Sometimes, the occurrence of an event can be caused by many things. This factor also implies the existence of interrelationships between one another.
In research, it is clear that we cannot control everything that affects the object of research. This is because there are many factors that we cannot control.
Therefore, we only focus on things that are measurable and can be controlled to know and measure the relationships and results of the research.
2. Right on target
Research must be carried out based on a set of good rules and procedures so that it can produce the right, relevant, and acceptable answers to all groups.
Every stage of research must follow coherent and orderly rules and procedures to produce quality output.
4. Valid and can be verified
Every finding that we get in research must be accountable both personally and in others
Each research result obtained must be true based on observation or following the method of data collection method from the object of research.
Research must be monitored and examined carefully and thoroughly. This aims to keep the results obtained from the researchable to find concrete solutions to a problem.
Usually, after “what is the meaning of research” questions, people will ask what is the concept of research itself.
Are the criteria and characteristics above able to guarantee that all research results are correct?
Questions like this often appear to those who do not understand the concept of research.
Research is an in-depth study to find a solution to a problem. There is no single condition of the criteria above that research must produce something right and true.
A research result will never be an absolute result or information. However, the results of a study must be subject to and follow the results of subsequent research when indeed the latest data or findings do deny the validity of previous data.
There is nothing wrong with the results of research that might be felt to be inappropriate while being well accounted for.
In the process of implementing research, a researcher must have the following frame of mind:
1. Procedures and stages of research are carried out based on scientific studies
Each study has a complete and systematic framework and literature study. The study was made based on a solid and proven scientific basis.
Research cannot be carried out carelessly because it will affect the results of the research itself.
2. Using methods and techniques that have been tested both validity and reliability
Research must produce data and information that can be tested for truth and can be trusted by all groups. The validity and reliability of evidence prove that the rules we use are correct.
3. Research is designed so that the results are accurate, unbiased, and objective
Researchers certainly want to prove new facts and information in a phenomenon. However, whatever the results will be, the researcher must not force his will to present the results of the research.
Data or research output must be accurate and following the actual conditions, even though the results are not following the expectations of the researcher.
In summary, the meaning of research is the process of studying, studying, or deepening a phenomenon that occurs using structured, empirical, and accountable methods to find new solutions or information.
Purposes of research are:
- 1. Obtain new knowledge and information
- 2. Get answers to the phenomena that occur
- 3. Finding a solution to a problem
Characteristics of research:
- 1. Controlled
- 2. Right on target
- 3. Systematic
- 4. Valid and can be verified
- 5. Empirical
- 6. Critical